- Pressing Tab changes focus to the next element. Every element on the page should be reachable using Tab.
- Shift + Tab navigates backwards through the web elements.
- Use the Enter or Return key to follow a link.
- Use the Spacebar to submit a button click.
- Navigate radio buttons and dropdown menus with the arrow keys.
- Navigate options with the Tab key within a modal dialogue (pop-up box).
- Exit or dismiss a dialog or pop-up box with the Escape key.
There are no Duo-specific keyboard shortcuts.
- MacOS: Open System Preferences → Keyboard and click the Shortcuts tab. Under Full Keyboard Access, choose the radio button that says All Controls.
- Windows: Enabled by default. Turn on additional accessibility features in the Windows Ease of Access Center on your PC.
- Chrome: Keyboard accessibility is enabled by default. If not, go to Settings → Show Advanced settings → Web Content. Enable the Pressing Tab on a webpage highlights links, as well as form fields option.
- Firefox: Uses the underlying operating system accessibility setting.
- Internet Explorer: Tab navigation enabled by default. Learn more about IE accessibility at the Microsoft Accessibility site.
- Safari: Open Preferences → Advanced. In the Accessibility settings, select Press tab to highlight each item on a webpage.
Duo has benchmarked themselves against the international technical standard for accessibility, W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. In working with the WCAG 2.0 AA standard, they also worked towards meeting the GSA Section 508 standards.
Duo has also worked with customers in the education space who have helped to audit the end user experience and have acted on their feedback. In addition, Duo has contracted the Michigan State University Usability/Accessibility Research and Consulting (UARC) team for a full audit later this year.
Duo tests for accessibility in a number of ways. For most visually impaired users, Duo tests their software manually by using both magnification and screen readers, specifically Nonvisual Access’ NVDA screen reader and Apple’s VoiceOver. They also ensure users can successfully authenticate only using a keyboard by testing font colors and backgrounds against contrast checkers and improving contrast for keyboard focus.
In order to test the results, Duo uses Google Developer Tools’ Accessibility Audit extension to run WCAG 2.0 audit rules against the product. When these tests didn’t reveal the best route to follow, Duo solicited feedback from web accessibility experts from education customers.
Duo restructured their code to communicate the same information in multiple ways. Users need to interact with content in a variety of forms and providing multiple ways to access content is the heart of web accessibility. Duo restructured HTML content to provide clear formatting information to screen readers and other assistive technology (AT). ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) roles and attributes were used to communicate additional information to AT without diminishing the experience for users.
For more information about Accessibility and Duo, please visit the following link: