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What are the keyboard shortcuts in Duo's browser-based authentication and enrollment interfaces?
Duo's authentication and enrollment interfaces are keyboard accessible using standard keystrokes, such as:


  • Pressing Tab changes focus to the next element. Every element on the page should be reachable using Tab.
  • Shift + Tab navigates backwards through the web elements.
  • Use the Enter or Return key to follow a link.
  • Use the Spacebar to submit a button click.
  • Navigate radio buttons and dropdown menus with the arrow keys.
  • Navigate options with the Tab key within a modal dialogue (pop-up box).
  • Exit or dismiss a dialog or pop-up box with the Escape key.


There are no Duo-specific keyboard shortcuts.

How do I enable keyboard accessibility?

Operating Systems


  • MacOS: Open System Preferences → Keyboard and click the Shortcuts tab. Under Full Keyboard Access, choose the radio button that says All Controls.
  • Windows: Enabled by default. Turn on additional accessibility features in the Windows Ease of Access Center on your PC.



  • Chrome: Keyboard accessibility is enabled by default. If not, go to Settings → Show Advanced settings → Web Content. Enable the Pressing Tab on a webpage highlights links, as well as form fields option.
  • Firefox: Uses the underlying operating system accessibility setting.
  • Internet Explorer: Tab navigation enabled by default. Learn more about IE accessibility at the Microsoft Accessibility site.
  • Safari: Open Preferences → Advanced. In the Accessibility settings, select Press tab to highlight each item on a webpage.
What standards does Duo use to measure accessibility?

Duo has benchmarked themselves against the international technical standard for accessibility, W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. In working with the WCAG 2.0 AA standard, they also worked towards meeting the GSA Section 508 standards.

Duo has also worked with customers in the education space who have helped to audit the end user experience and have acted on their feedback. In addition, Duo has contracted the Michigan State University Usability/Accessibility Research and Consulting (UARC) team for a full audit later this year.

How does Duo test for accessibility?

Duo tests for accessibility in a number of ways. For most visually impaired users, Duo tests their software manually by using both magnification and screen readers, specifically Nonvisual Access’ NVDA screen reader and Apple’s VoiceOver. They also ensure users can successfully authenticate only using a keyboard by testing font colors and backgrounds against contrast checkers and improving contrast for keyboard focus.

In order to test the results, Duo uses Google Developer Tools’ Accessibility Audit extension to run WCAG 2.0 audit rules against the product. When these tests didn’t reveal the best route to follow, Duo solicited feedback from web accessibility experts from education customers.

What has Duo done for accessibility on a technical level?

Duo restructured their code to communicate the same information in multiple ways. Users need to interact with content in a variety of forms and providing multiple ways to access content is the heart of web accessibility. Duo restructured HTML content to provide clear formatting information to screen readers and other assistive technology (AT). ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) roles and attributes were used to communicate additional information to AT without diminishing the experience for users.

Will average users see improvement in their Duo experience?
Duo believes that making software more accessible improves the experience for all users. Focused content is more visible, forms have been simplified and better organized, content has been clarified, and keyboard accessibility is significantly improved.
Which of Duo’s products are most accessible?
Duo has focused primarily on the end user experience; the parts of Duo’s software that are seen by the most people. The Duo Prompt has seen the most improvement as they work to make it WCAG 2.0 AA-level accessible. The Duo Mobile application has also undergone accessibility audits and improvements.
Are there certain modes that provide increased or decreased accessibility?
Duo's authentication prompt is fully compatible with popular screen readers and voiceover options on Apple and Android phones. It is most accessible on up-to-date version of the most popular browsers: Chrome, Safari, Firefox, and Edge. The Duo Mobile application for iOS and Android is also compatible with platform native text to speech and alternative navigation options.
What does Duo plan to do for accessibility moving forward?
Duo has accessibility audits scheduled with Michigan State University’s UARC team by the end of this year. They will continue to act on their feedback to meet WCAG 2.0 standards and will rely on internal accessibility experts to help design accessible software from the ground up as they continue to deliver value to their customers.

For more information about Accessibility and Duo, please visit the following link: